Graphene is deemed as the world’s cutting-edge technology, which has the capability to become the game changer in vast industry applications such as in high-frequency and low-cost electronics, advanced optical data communications. This pure carbon single-layer material with one-atom thickness, approximately 0.34nm, is densely packed in a 2D honeycomb crystal structure and is partly claimed to be unrolled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The global commercialisation of graphene skyrocketed for the past decade due to the material’s high-end electro-optical properties that addresses, and counters extensive range of technological hindrances faced by industries. The yield of graphene sheets can potentially be enhanced via comprehensive studies on electrodes separations and modification of electrodes (i.e. including platinum) that enhances electrochemical-potential difference in the series.
Graphene is now being studied extensively around the world due to its outstanding qualities such as zero bandgap, excellent electron mobility at room temperature, high thermal conductivity and stiffness, enormous surface area, impermeable to gases, and flexibility. The discovery of graphene is fully recognized as a major milestone in material science, as evidenced by the international interest, the material has garnered in sectors such as electronics, photonics, aerospace, automotive, biosensing, water filtration, and 3D printing  – . For instance, the excellent electrical and thermal conductivity combining with the optical transparency makes it possible for graphene to be applied to nanoelectronics in integrated circuits and optoelectronics components (i.e. solar cells, light emitting diodes, lasers and display panels). The flexible and strong mechanical properties of graphene can be applied to light weight-high strength materials that are used in transportation vehicles and aircraft. The astonishing chemical filtering properties of graphene makes it possible to be applied in desalination, chemical sensing, detoxification, DNA sequencing and delivery of medicine along with carbon neutrality goals. The Carbon Neutrality efforts pledge by United Nation (UN) as priority for a worldwide effort in its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and Future and Emerging Graphene Technology Flagship by the European Commission.